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Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) is a communications protocol for message-oriented middleware based on XML (Extensible Markup Language).  It enables the near-real-time exchange of structured yet extensible data between any two or more network entities. The architecture of the XMPP network is similar to email; anyone can run their own XMPP server and there is no central master server.

XMPP is defined in an open standard and uses an open systems approach of development and application.  Because XMPP is an open protocol, implementations can be developed using any software license; although many server, client, and library implementations are distributed as free and open-source software, numerous freeware and commercial software implementations also exist.

XMPP features such as federation across domains, publish/subscribe, authentication and its security even for mobile endpoints are being used to implement the Internet of Things. XMPP servers can be isolated (e.g., on a company intranet), and secure authentication (SASL) and encryption (TLS) have been built into the core XMPP specifications.